Brain Tumor Stem Cell- Tumor Vaccine – Nanotherapy
Stem Cells Cells that are called embriyonic or mesenchymal and which contribute to hemostasis in certain tissues have been recognized for a long time now. These self-renewing cells are called stem cells today. They are non-specialized cells with a biology specific to themselves. They take part in tissue development, hemostasis and the organization between different cell types. They divide asimetrically and this allows for self-renewal and longer periods of stability (self-renewal). They can be turned into specialized cells by certain stimuli (pluripotency). They also have physiological regulatory mechanisms for organisms (regulability). These three main properties (self-renewal, pluripotency, regulability) determine the ‘normal’ stem cells of organisms. By dividing regularly, these cells regenerate tissues and replace the cells that are advancing towards apoptosis on their normal course. Through paracrines and autocrine cytocines, they connect both to other tissue groups and to the immune system.

Glial Tumor Stem Cells-Brain Tumor Stem Cells Tumor stem cells have been defined in pediatric as well as adult brain tumors. Studies have concentrated on the medullablastoma in the pediatric population and on the gliablastoma in the adult brain. The terms glial tumor stem cell, Glioma Stem Cell (GSC) and Brain Tumor Stem Cell (BTSC) are used interchangeably. Glioma stem cells may appear either by the transformation of normal embryonic stem cells or the transformation of progenitor cells back to the stem cell level in an abnormal manner. The reasons causing this are demonstrated as changes in pH, hypoxia, paracrine and autocrine cytokines and accumulation of genetic mutations formed by microglial response over time.

Brain Tumor Stem Cell and Treatment
Following radiotherapy, the percentage of CD133+ (Brain Tumor Stem Cell marker) cells within malign gliomas notably increases. This percentage depends on the elimination of tumor cells due to radiation or their survival depending on radiation resistance. The ability of BTSC’s to repair radiation related DNA damage is shown in glioma tumor cultures. Moreover, Conventional chemotherapeutic agents are produced out of studies performed on the final state of cancer cell clones.

Immunotherapy for gliablastome include both signalling pathways and activities of niches ,activating stem cell’s autophagy, immun and viral theraphy based on stem cell. Immun system is excited toward stem cell or a small structure of stem cells plasma membrane. Two types of immunotherapies can use that active and passive immunotherapies. Both of them can either be non-specific or specific. Non-specific immunotherapies are induced a general immune response whereas specific immunotherapies are induced a particular immune response with a specific antigen. Active immunotherapy mean that activates the host’s immune system with part of tumor stem cell such as cancer vaccines, cellular immunotherapy. At the passive immunotherapy, the host immune’s response is initiated by external antibodies or other immune components such as monoclonal antibodies, Cytokines. These usually generate from laboratory.

Gene Therapy:
Another modality is gene therapy. The aim of gene therapy is to provoke an immune response to destroy tumor cells too . In the context of gene therapy, the antitumor response depends on the cell destruction from the virus and the induction of a systemic immune response from the local environment.

Non-viral Vectors and viral vectors can us efor this aim. Non-viral gene transfection and expression techniques applied to tumor stem cell may be generally categorized as physical (e.g., electroporation) and chemical (e.g., lipofection). Lot of size of genes are tried to transfer to tumor stem cell.

The development of new technologies based on nanometersized particles (nanotechnology) for cancer treatment has been extensively investigated in the last decade and this approach shows potential benefit for glioma diagnosis and treatment. Few clinical trials using nanotherapies to target gliablastoma have been conducted. This section aim that focuses on nanometersized particles at gliablastoma , and the give brief information about nanotechnology.

An alternative approach for discovering proteins with specificity for GBM is offered by using nanobodies, which can use both stem cells fragments and transport equipment to target tissue.

For more information…
1. Brain Tumors and Future Therapeutic Options .Dündar T. T.
in: Mathematical modelling of real world problems: interdisciplinary studies in applied mathematics, Enrico Feoli,Abu H Siddiqi,Zafer Aslan,Funda Dökmen, Editor, NOVA Science Publishers Inc. , New-York, pp.221-229, 2019

2. http://www.remedypublications.com/open-access/brain-tumor-stem-cells-and-new-therapeutic-options-5363.pdf